5 Components of Health Related Physical Fitness

Cardio-Respiratory Fitness

Muscular Endurance

Muscular Strength

Body  Composition


A comprehensive exercise program includes the 5 health related components of physical fitness. All 5 health components are important to promote optimal health and prevent the onset of disease and complications associated with inactivity.

The importance of working with a professional fitness service is that all 5 health components will be addressed in every session. We prescribe the correct protocol of frequency, duration, and intensity to safely accomplish the established goals of our programs.

Benefits of Cardiovascular Training
Benefits of Resistance Training

Cardio-Respiratory fitness & body composition are health related components of fitness addressed. This may improve or maintain the following:


  1. Decreased risk of many chronic diseases and premature mortality

  2. Enhanced physical function in older persons

  3. Enhanced feelings of well being

  4. Enhanced performance of work, recreational and sport activities

  5. Reduced occurrences of cardiac events

  6. Reduced occurrences of stroke

  7. Reduced incidences of Hypertension

  8. Reduced incidences of Obesity and type 2 diabetes

  9. Reduced levels of anxiety and depression

  10. Reduced incidences of colon cancer

  11. Reduces incidences of breast cancer

  12. Reduced incidences of gall bladder disease

  13. Decreases in triglycerides and blood platelet aggregation

  14. Decreases in intra-abdominal fat and total body fat

  15. Increases in HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol)

  16. Increased maximal oxygen uptake

  17. Decreased myocardial oxygen cost at submaximal intensities

  18. Decreased resting heart rate and blood pressure

  19. Decreased heart rate and blood pressure at submaximal intensities

  20. Decreases minute ventilation at submaximal intensities

  21. Increased capillary density in skeletal muscle

  22. Increases exercise threshold for angina, ischemia and Claudication

  23. Increased exercise threshold for the onset of lactic acid accumulation

  24. Increased pulmonary function

  25. Increased number and size of mitochondria

  26. Increased stroke volume and maximal cardiac output

  27. Increased plasma volume, hemoglobin and myoglobin content

  28. Increased capacity to oxidize fat and metabolize lipids

  29. Increased capacity to generate ATP

  30. Increased Carbohydrate metabolism

Muscular strength & endurance and body composition are health related components of fitness addressed. This may improve or maintain the following:


  1. Lean body mass (LBM)

  2. Skeletal health and bone mineral density

  3. Musculotendinous integrity

  4. Glucose tolerance and Insulin sensitivity

  5. Stress reduction and self esteem

  6. Ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL’s)

  7. Resting metabolic rate

  8. Bone mass & strength

  9. Reduction in fractures, specifically related to osteoporosis

  10.  Strength and anaerobic muscular endurance

  11.  Neuromotor recruitment

  12.  Carbohydrate metabolism

  13.  Resting blood pressure

  14.  Physical function in old age

  15.  Modest improvements in CV fitness

  16.  Stability of joints

  17.  Posture maintenance

  18.  Support and protection of other body structures

  19.  Maintenance of normal body temperature

  20.  Reaction time

Benefits of Flexibility  Training

Flexibility is a health related component of fitness addressed. This may improve or maintain the following:


  1. Increases joint range of motion

  2. Fortifies posture

  3. Increase muscular stamina

  4. Decreases risk of injury

  5. Improve energy

  6. Promotes blood circulation

  7. Improve muscle performance

  8. Reduced muscle soreness


1. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing & prescription, 7th edition 2006

2. Nieman, David C. “ Exercise testing & prescription- A health related approach” 5th edition 2003

3. McArdle, Katch and Katch “Exercise physiology-energy, nutrition and human performance” 4tnh edition 1996

4. Marieb, Elaine B. “Human anatomy and physiology” 2nd edition 1992

5. United States Dept. of Health & Human services, a Surgeons General’s report on Physical activity and Health, 1996.

6. Kesaniemi YK., Danforth E. Jr., Jensen, MD et al. “Dose –response issues concerning physical activity and health: an evidenced based symposium” Med Sci Sports Exercise 2001; 33:s351-358

7. ACSM’s guideline for exercise testing and prescription 7th edition, 2006

8. McArdle W., Katch F., Katch V. “Exercise physiology; Energy, nutrition and Human performance” 4th edition, 1996.

9. Nieman, David C. “Exercise testing and prescription; A health related approach” 5th edition, 2003.

10. ACSM’s Health-Related Physical Fitness Assessment Manual 2nd edition, 2008